Weight and balance have a direct effect on the stability and performance of the aircraft. If a plane is too heavy, it may never get off the ground. If it’s out of balance, it may be uncontrollable when it does take flight. Obviously, neither of these scenarios will produce a desired outcome.
How does weight affect aircraft performance?
When weight is increased on an aircraft, it needs to fly at a higher angle-of-attack to produce more lift, opposing the aircraft’s increase in weight. This increases both the induced drag created by the wings and the overall parasite drag on the aircraft. … Power is needed to overcome any increase in drag.
Why is aircraft weight and balance important?
The weight of an aircraft and its balance are extremely important for operating in a safe and efficient manner. When a manufacturer designs an aircraft and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certifies it, the specifications identify the aircraft’s maximum weight and the limits within which it must balance.
How does weight and balance work on a plane?
Ascertain from the pilot’s operating handbook the empty weight of the aircraft and determine the weights of people, baggage, and fuel. Multiply each weight by the arm—the distance from the reference datum—to find the moment. Add all the weights to find the gross weight. Add all the moments to find the total moment.
Does weight affect aircraft range?
Variations in aircraft weight do not affect the glide angle provided that the correct airspeed is flown. Since it is the lift over drag (L/D) ratio that determines the gliding range, weight will not affect it. … The only effect weight has is to vary the time the aircraft will glide for.
Who is responsible for the correct weight and balance of every flight?
1-1] The pilot in command of the aircraft has the responsibility on every flight to know the maximum allowable weight of the aircraft and its CG limits.
At what speed is the airplane most efficient?
So 103 mph is the optimum airspeed—and flying at the highest possible altitude at which your Citabria can deliver 103 mph IAS will get the best result in terms of true airspeed and fuel consumption.
What are the 4 principles of flight?
The four forces are lift, thrust, drag, and weight. As a Frisbee flies through the air, lift holds it up.
Which would have an effect on aircraft CG results when conducting a weight and balance check?
In the process of weighing an airplane toward obtaining the CG, the arms from the weighing points always extend… Parallel to the centerline of the airplane. Which would have an effect on aircraft CG results when conducting a weight and balance check? Leaving the downlocks installed.
What weight do airlines use for passengers?
Since 1995, most airlines have assumed a weight of 180 pounds for each adult passenger in summer and 185 pounds in winter; checked bags are assumed to weigh 25 pounds each. Some airlines that fly small planes with 19 or fewer seats have already raised their weight allowances by about 30 pounds, the F.A.A. said today.
How often does an aircraft need to be weighed?
When operating under FAR 135, an aircraft must be weighed every 36 calendar months to establish its current empty weight and center of gravity.
What does the weight and balance moment measure?
Filed Under: Aircraft Weight and Balance. A moment is the product of a weight multiplied by its arm. The moment for a piece of equipment is in fact a torque value, measured in units of inch-pounds (in-lb).
Does empty weight include unusable fuel?
Basic Empty Weight – The starting point for weight computations is the basic empty weight, which is the weight of the standard helicopter, optional equipment, unusable fuel, and full operating fluids including full engine oil. … It includes the flight crew, usable fuel, drainable oil, if applicable, and payload.
What causes an airplane to pitch nose down when power is reduced?
What causes an airplane (except a T tail) to pitch nose down when power is reduced and controls are not adjusted? The downwash on the elevators from the propeller slipstream is reduced and elevator effectiveness is reduced. An airplane has been loaded in such a manner that the CG is located aft CG limit.
Who is responsible for the proper loading of an aircraft prior to takeoff?
The pilot controls loading and fuel management (the two variable factors that can change both total weight and CG location) of a particular aircraft.
What factors affect aircraft performance?
The primary factors most affected by performance are the takeoff and landing distance, rate of climb, ceiling, payload, range, speed, maneuverability, stability, and fuel economy.