For a commercial airliner (as the question asked), separation will usually be at least 3 miles laterally, or 1,000 feet vertically. In the enroute environment — at higher operating speeds above 10,000 feet and based on the type of Radar and distance from the antennae — a 5 mile rule is applied laterally.
What is the minimum distance between planes?
When aircraft are separated vertically, horizontal separation can be reduced without compromising safety. In controlled en route airspace, the horizontal separation standard between aircraft flying at the same altitude is 5 nm (9260 m). In terminal area airspace, the minimum separation is 3 nm (5500 m).
What should the minimum horizontal and vertical separation between two aircraft be below FL290?
ICAO specify minimum vertical separation for IFR flight as 1000 ft (300 m) below FL290 and 2000 ft (600 m) above FL290, except where Reduced Vertical Separation Minima (RVSM) apply.
What is the air traffic separation standard in the US?
IFR Separation Standards
When radar is employed in the separation of aircraft at the same altitude, a minimum of 3 miles separation is provided between aircraft operating within 40 miles of the radar antenna site, and 5 miles between aircraft operating beyond 40 miles from the antenna site.
What is the minimum separation requirement for VFR aircraft flying in the Class D?
VFR aircraft are separated from all VFR/IFR aircraft which weigh 19,000 pounds or less by a minimum of: Target resolution, or. 500 feet vertical separation, or. Visual separation.
Can planes fly close to each other?
In controlled airspace, the required minimum horizontal separation between aircraft flying at the same altitude is five nautical miles, which is just over 9 kilometres. When an airplane is departing, Air Traffic Controllers can place aircraft much closer to each other than they do at cruise altitude.
How long can a plane fly non stop?
The longest nonstop commercial flight in the world is scheduled at 17 hours and 50 minutes. This route from Los Angeles to Singapore serviced by United Airlines isn’t the longest by distance, but it has the longest duration due to commonly strong headwinds.
Who is responsible for separation between VFR flights?
In general, separation standards are not applied by ATC to or between VFR flights and therefore separation from other aircraft remains the responsibility of the pilot in command of a VFR flight. The exception to this applies in Class C Airspace – where ATC will separate VFR from IFR but not VFR from VFR. 1.
What is required to qualify for RVSM separation?
Within RVSMairspace (between FL290 and FL410 inclusive) the vertical separation minimum is: 1000ft (300m) between RVSM-approved aircraft, and. 2000ft (600m) between non-RVSM approved state aircraft and any other aircraft operating within RVSM airspace.
What is the radar separation less than 40 nm from the antenna?
When less than 40 miles from the antenna- 1 1/2 miles. When 40 miles or more from the antenna- 2 1/2 miles.
What is the minimum safe altitude anywhere?
An altitude of 500 feet above the surface, except over open water or sparsely populated areas. In those cases, the aircraft may not be operated closer than 500 feet to any person, vessel, vehicle, or structure.
What does descend at pilot’s discretion mean?
A phrase, when used in conjunction with altitude assignments, that means that ATC (air traffic control) has offered the pilot the option of starting to climb or descend whenever he or she wishes and conducting the climb or descent at a rate he or she desires.
What minimum equipment is required for IFR flight?
In the United States, instruments required for IFR flight in addition to those that are required for VFR flight are: heading indicator, sensitive altimeter adjustable for barometric pressure, clock with a sweep-second pointer or digital equivalent, attitude indicator, radios and suitable avionics for the route to be …
What are basic VFR weather minimums?
The basic VFR weather minimums (14 CFR 91.155) are specific to types of airspace and altitudes. … The rationale for greater visibility and more distance from clouds when flying above 10,000 MSL is to give VFR pilots more time to see and avoid faster aircraft that are popping in and out of clouds.
What must a pilot do before entering Class D airspace?
Class D Airspace
Unless otherwise authorized, each aircraft must establish two-way radio communications with the ATC facility providing air traffic services prior to entering the airspace and thereafter maintain those communications while in the airspace.
Can you fly over Class C airspace without a transponder?
While you don’t need an operable transponder to fly below a Class C shelf, you will need one to fly above Class C airspace. As you approach a Class C airport, you’ll contact that airspace’s approach control.