Wingtip vortices are greatest when the generating aircraft is “heavy, clean, and slow.” This condition is most commonly encountered during approaches or departures because an aircraft’s AOA is at the highest to produce the lift necessary to land or take off.
Which type of aircraft creates wingtip vortices?
The strongest vortices are produced by heavy aircraft, flying slowly, with wing flaps and landing gear retracted (“heavy, slow and clean”). Large jet aircraft can generate vortices that can persist for many minutes, drifting with the wind.
What causes wingtip vortices?
1. The vortices are caused by a pressure imbalance. The vortices are created at the plane’s wingtips as the wings generate lift. The lower pressure air above the wing and the higher pressure air below seek to balance out, which causes the spiraling air flow.
In which type of aircraft and in which configuration is wake turbulence most prominent?
29 Cards in this Set
|The greatest wake turbulence is associated with which aircraft configuration? A. Heavy, clean, fast B. Heavy, dirty, slow C. Heavy, clean, slow||Heavy, clean, slow|
|What must a helicopter be doing in order to generate wingtip vortices?||It must be in a forward flight|
How do you prevent wingtip vortices?
When an aircraft is flying, the wingtip vortices produced by the aircraft slowly descend behind the airplane. When the aircraft touches down, the vortices end. By flying your airplane above their flight path, and landing beyond their touchdown point, you’re almost guaranteed to avoid a wake turbulence encounter.
Why do airplanes have winglets?
Winglets allow the wings to be more efficient at creating lift, which means planes require less power from the engines. … Winglets help mitigate the effects of “induced drag.” When an aircraft is in flight, the air pressure on top of the wing is lower than the air pressure under the wing.
Do winglets increase lift?
Winglets increase an aircraft’s operating efficiency by reducing what is called induced drag at the tips of the wings. … The effect of these vortices is increased drag and reduced lift that results in less flight efficiency and higher fuel costs.
Why do 777 not have winglets?
B777 was designed when the advantages of the wingtips were well known, yet they decided to go without one anyway. … Because winglets are a tradeoff: In the highly visible case of the 777, an airplane with exceptionally long range, the wings grew so long that folding wingtips were offered to get into tight airport gates.
Why do vortices cause drag?
The higher-pressure air below a wing spills up over the wing tip into the area of lower-pressure air above. … Vortices reduce the air pressure along the entire rear edge of the wing, which increases the pressure drag on the airplane.
Do winglets reduce wake turbulence?
Winglets reduce wake turbulence thus minimizing its potential effect on following aircraft. Winglets come in different shapes and sizes with each type performing the same basic drag-reducing function. They have proven to be very effective even when retrofitted to aircraft originally designed in the 1960s.
What are the minimum safe altitudes?
(c) Over other than congested areas – An altitude of 500 feet above the surface except over open water or sparsely populated areas. In that case, the aircraft may not be operated closer than 500 feet to any person, vessel, vehicle, or structure.
What planes are heavy?
The FAA requires any aircraft with a maximum takeoff weight in excess of 300,000lbs to use the term “heavy.” This includes Boeing 747, 767, 777, and 787 aircraft.
What is the proper procedure to avoid wake turbulence?
Here’s what the FAA recommends to avoid wake turbulence on takeoff: Rotate prior to the point at which the preceding aircraft rotated. Maneuver your aircraft to avoid the flight path of the preceding aircraft.
How much fuel do winglets save?
Depending on the airplane, its cargo, the airline’s routes, and other factors, blended winglets can: Lower operating costs by reducing block fuel burn by 4 to 5 percent on missions near the airplane’s design range. Increase the payload/range capability of the airplane instead of reducing the fuel consumption.
What is the most dangerous condition for landing with respect to wingtip vortices?
What is the most dangerous condition for landing with respect to wingtip vortices? The most dangerous condition for landing is a light, quartering tailwind since it can move the upwind vortex of a landing aircraft over the runway and forward into the touchdown zone.
How dangerous is wake turbulence?
However, on some days, the wake can descend more slowly or the trailing airplane can be lower. In these cases, interaction with a wake is to be expected. Wake turbulence is normally not dangerous; there are exceptions to this.