# How do you find the top of a descent Cessna 172?

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A quick and easy way to figure it out is to start with your altitude above field elevation and multiply that number by three. This will give you the approximate distance in nautical miles from the airport to start a 500-foot-per-minute descent in the typical light general aviation airplane and reach pattern altitude.

## How do you calculate top of descent?

MSL, simply subtract the field elevation from your current altitude and then multiply that number by 3. After doing the math, you’ll know you should begin making your descent around 25.5 miles from the airport.

## How do you calculate aircraft descent rate?

If you multiply your descent angle (1 degree) by your miles-per-minute, then add two zeros to the end (x 100), you’ll have your FPM descent rate. So in this example, if you’re flying at 120 knots, you’re traveling 2 miles-per-minute (MPM) (120/60=2).

## How do you find the planned descent point?

Descent Planning Any Pilot Can Use

1. You have to descend ft in the next 10 NM ahead of you.
2. Your GS is 120 kts. 120 / 60= 2 Nm per minute right?
3. So 10 NM / 2 = 5 minutes to be there.
4. Now 5000 ft / 5 min = 1000 feet per minute rate of descend.
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## How do pilots know when to descend?

Answer: Pilots plan the descent based on the wind and air traffic flow. … In addition to the radar guidance from air traffic control, pilots program navigation computers and radios to ensure proper lateral and vertical paths.

## What does Top descent mean?

In aviation, the top of descent, also referred to as the TOD or T/D, is the computed transition from the cruise phase of a flight to the descent phase, or the point at which the planned descent to final approach altitude is initiated.

## What is the normal rate of descent for an airplane?

Idle descent in many jets is around 3,000 feet per minute until reaching 10,000 feet. There is a speed restriction of 250 knots below 10,000 feet, therefore the flight management computer will slow the aircraft to 250 knots and continue the descent at approximately 1,500 feet per minute.

## What does a 3 degree glide slope mean?

The rule simply states that a conventional, 3-degree glideslope (normally the optimum vertical profile to use during a landing approach) descends 300 feet per nautical mile. In other words, multiply your distance from touchdown by 300 feet to determine target altitudes while on final approach.

## How do you find descent in infinite flight?

Method 3 – Divide your ground speed by 2 and add a zero. Method 4 – Start descent when the time to the airport equals altitude to lose for 1000 ft/min descent. Example: 10,000 feet to lose, start descent 10 minutes out at 1000 ft/min. When you reach the ILS follow the ILS glide slope, using method one.

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## What is a descent profile?

For the descent profile, it is the reverse, initial Mach number from Cruise altitude until reaching the transition to indicated airspeed, then the IAS above 10,000′, then the IAS below 10,000′.

## What is the descent rate of a parachute?

Depending upon air density and the jumper’s total weight, the parachute’s average rate of descent is from 22 to 24 feet per second (6.7 to 7.3 m/s); total suspended weight limitation is 360 pounds (160 kg).

## How do planes descend?

A plane descends when its wings produce less lift than it weighs. In order to keep the plane aloft, the pilot needs to keep overcoming gravity – in physics terms, ensure that the aircraft produces more lift than the aircraft weighs.

## How do you calculate true airspeed?

Read your altitude above Mean Sea Level (MSL) on your altimeter, based on the proper altimeter setting. Mathematically increase your indicated airspeed (IAS) by 2% per thousand feet of altitude to obtain the true airspeed (TAS). For example, the indicated airspeed (IAS) of my Comanche at 8,500 ft. MSL is 170 knots.

## How cold is it at 35000 feet?

How cold is it up there? The higher you get, the colder it gets, up until 40,000 feet. If the temperature at ground level was 20C, at 40,000 feet it would be -57C. At 35,000 feet the air temperature is about -54C.

## What does descend at pilot’s discretion mean?

The term “AT PILOT’S DISCRETION” included in the altitude information of an ATC clearance means that ATC has offered the pilot the option to start climb or descent when the pilot wishes, is authorized to conduct the climb or descent at any rate, and to temporarily level off at any intermediate altitude as desired.

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## How do pilots know where the runway is?

When clouds surround an airport, pilots have been able to find the path to the runway for decades by using an Instrument Landing System, or ILS. Ground-based transmitters project one radio beam straight down the middle of the runway, and another angled up from the runway threshold at a gentle three degrees.